Quantized Spacetime

star field

5 Black Shell Properties

The mass of the star determines the final radius of the terminal shell, which is calculated with the Schwarzschild equation, making use of the gravitational constant and the speed of light. The motion of elementary particles continues circumferentially in the terminal shell. Nothing slows them down.

Complete gravitational collapse of a star can only occur when the star has a mass somewhat greater than three suns. If the energy of a particle within the terminal shell of a star of five solar masses is calculated, it corresponds to a photon with a temperature of a few millionths of a degree (see Appendix).

The mathematical expression for the temperature of the black shell is identical to that derived by Stephen Hawkins for a black hole. It gives the same temperature, indicating that a black shell with a mass of five suns is populated with photons at a temperature well below that of the cosmic background radiation.

 If there is some residual fluctuation in the speed of the shell photons, those at very slightly above light speed may escape tangentially from the gravitational field grasping the terminal shell. That is, the escape velocity from the shell is the velocity of light. As the energy within the escaping quanta is below that of the microwave background, the shell appears black and acts as an event horizon, hiding events within the shell.

The black shell must meet two energy requirements: it must have the same mass as the original star, and the velocity of particles arriving the shell must equal the escape velocity. This second requirement presents a problem.

Initially, matter particles, such as atoms of hydrogen, helium and carbon, make up most of the infalling material. These are composed of elementary fermions,  particles like quarks, electrons, and neutrinos that need infinite energy in continuous spacetime to achieve the speed of light. Moving at the speed of light is a characteristic of bosons, which include photons, gravitons and other particles that have no mass and convey forces.

So, to reach the terminal quanta shell at the speed of light, the infalling fermions must change into bosons. This has long been regarded as forbidden, but recent work suggests it may be possible on a two-dimensional surface like that of the terminal shell. It is a translation that has been demonstrated on a two-dimensional atomic surface and attributed to particles called anyons. Their whimsical name indicates they can shift their identity between bosons and fermions. Incoming fermions may become bosons via anyons as they approach the terminal shell.

 But such a process may be only a fleeting detail in an overwhelming compression that simply smashes all elementary particles into photons. We are struggling to obtain energy by compressing protons or deuterons to pressures and temperatures found in the sun. In star collapse the pressures and temperatures may be billions of times higher. The conditions are so extreme that our set of some 29 or so elementary particles may become revealed as composite. Muon disintegration and electron-positron annihilation into gamma rays suggest this possibility.

One other requirement exists that is specific to black shells. A non-spinning gravitationally collapsed object with no electrical charge is found to be as symmetrical and featureless as an elementary particle. So, the terminal shell should be perfectly symmetrical and definable simply by its mass, distributed in identical particles that populate every quantum of the black shell. This means there can be no pattern of empty and filled quanta, random or otherwise. The quanta in the terminal shell must be all occupied by the same type of particle. This is the basis for the calculation of the temperature of the black shell.

Experimentally, it is impossible to distinguish between a black shell and a black hole, as that would require information from behind the event horizon. The black shell hypothesis has the advantage of simplicity and requires no suspension of the laws of physics. 8/28/2020   7:19   5

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