## 6 Speed in Quantized Spacetime

Quantized spacetime brings a pleasing symmetry to black stars with its uniform shell of photons and no singularity. But it does so at the expense of turning the whole mass of the star into photons. This is necessary if the velocity of matter arriving at the event horizon is to equal the escape velocity. Since this is the speed of light, arriving fermionic matter must go through a phase change into bosons. The calculation of the mass per spacetime quantum in the shell produces the same equation for horizon temperature as derived in the continuous spacetime for a hole, where the horizon is a merely a theoretical boundary with no material presence.

From the point of view of continuous spacetime, conversion of matter into particles travelling at the speed of light requires infinite energy and therefore is impossible. Quantized spacetime takes infinity off the table and assumes a particle will start to change into a boson when the energy driving it takes it up to a few quanta within the speed of light.

I put forward this hypothetical scenario to suggest that the penalty of accepting quantized spacetime, and its requirement that mass be readily transformed to move at the speed of light, might be acceptable in exchange for a possible new insight into why our familiar universe is such a small fraction of the whole universe. But quantized spacetime requires mass to move at the speed of light in other circumstances as well. This type of quantization requires elementary particles to always move at the speed of light.

Spacetime quanta are defined as having the minimum possible length and the minimum possible time. Therefore, the speed of transfer between quanta can be no faster than the minimum length divided by the minimum time. To move faster would be to travel the minimum length in less than the minimum time, contrary to to the definition of minimum time.

However, traveling slower that maxim speed is not allowed either. It would mean moving less than the minimum length in the minimum time. Suppose a particle were to move at half the speed of light by taking two time intervals to travel one quantum length. This would mean that in one time interval it travelled half a quantum length. By definition, there is no half quantum length.

So, how do particles, in isolation or as group, move slowly in quantized spacetime? By mixing transfers between quanta at light speed with pauses within quanta at zero speed. The quanta enforce a pattern of transfers and pauses that gives an average speed, indicating that quanta can be in one of two states: a pause state or a transfer state. In addition, individual transfer and pause time intervals must be equal to maintain synchronism of the matrix. If a transfer state is represented by a 1 and a pause state by a 0, a string of binary bits can define the average speed of a particle. The quantum length becomes the smallest part of spacetime able to store a single bit of information. This is how the size of the spacetime quantum is discovered (Appendix).

Achieving an average speed below that of light in quantized spacetime is a remarkable achievement, considering the difference between the pause state and the transfer state of a particle, and the difference between a particle that pauses and one that is always in the transfer state.

A muon, a form of heavy electron, always moves below the speed of light and displays pause-state properties. That is, it has mass, it decays radioactively (it ages), and is associated with a wave of length inversely proportional to its momentum (velocity times mass). A photon displays transfer state properties. In a vacuum it moves at the speed of light without pause. It has no mass, it does not decay (no aging), and is associated with a wave of frequency proportional to its energy. So how can a mass particle (or more generally, a fermion) manage to make a transfer between quanta? A transfer at the speed of light is a property of a group of particles (such as the photon) known as bosons, which have no mass. 8/14/2020 5:48 6

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