Stars Collapse to Black Shells

Quantized Spacetime

An alternative offered by quantizing space and time immerses us in a sea of spacetime bubbles, each tiny sphere displaying the smallest length in the universe and the smallest possible time. These are the Planck length and the Planck time. The bubbles are spacetime quanta that locate the position and motion of quanta of energy and matter in the form of elementary particles. Scientists on other planets in our universe would recognize their dimensions immediately, because they derive from fundamental features of the universe, including the speed of light. The smallest length divided by the smallest time is the speed of light.


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Spacetime quanta have three dimensions of space and one of time. They are far smaller than the nucleus of hydrogen, the proton. It checks in at about a trillionth of a millimeter (10-15 m). At any moment, each of its 13 elementary particles sits in only one quantum but the proton occupies the space of ten thousand trillion, trillion, trillion, trillion, spacetime quanta (1052). Most of the quanta that fill the universe are empty.

The spacetime quanta have been tightly packed by gravity into a cosmic matrix. This identifies the location and speed of all the particles in the universe. The quanta are spherical to ensure that whichever direction a particle moves through them, it moves the same distance with the same velocity. There is no preferred direction for movement unless some force diverts the particle.